What to do if your computer or laptop starts to slow down or runs slowly

As a rule, after the initial installation Windows 10, the computer simply 'flies': pages in the browser open very quickly and any, even the most resource-intensive programs are launched. But over time, users load the hard drive with necessary and unnecessary programs that place additional load on the central processor. This dramatically affects the drop in performance and performance of a laptop or computer. A considerable amount of resources are taken up by all kinds of gadgets and visual effects, which some inexperienced users like to decorate their desktop with. Computers that were bought five or ten years ago and are already obsolete suffer more from such ill-considered actions. They cannot maintain at a certain level the system requirements that are needed for the normal operation of modern programs, and they start to slow down. To understand this problem and get rid of freezes and braking of devices based on information technology, you need to carry out a step-by-step complex of diagnostics.

Content

  • Why a computer or laptop with Windows 10 starts to freeze and slow down: reasons and solutions
    • Not enough processor power for new software
      • Video: how to disable unnecessary processes through the 'Task Manager' in Windows 10
    • Hard drive problems
      • Video: what to do if the hard disk is 100% loaded
    • Out of RAM
      • Video: How to Optimize RAM with Wise Memory Optimizer
    • Too many startup programs
      • Video: how to remove a program from 'Startup' in Windows 10
    • Computer virus infection
    • Overheating of components
      • Video: how to find out the CPU temperature in Windows 10
    • Insufficient paging file
      • Video: how to resize, delete, or move the paging file to Windows 10
    • Influence of visual effects
      • Video: how to disable unnecessary visual effects
    • High dustiness
    • Firewall prohibitions
    • Too many junk files
      • Video: 12 reasons why a computer or laptop slows down
  • Reasons why certain programs slow down, and how to fix them
    • Slow down games
    • Computer slows down due to browser
    • Driver problems

Why a computer or laptop with Windows 10 starts to freeze and slow down: reasons and solutions

To figure out what is the reason for the computer slowdown, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive check of the device. All possible methods are already known and tested, it remains only to get to the bottom of a specific problem. With the correct determination of the cause of the device slowdown, there is the possibility of an increase in performance by twenty to thirty percent, which is especially important for older models of laptops and computers. The check will have to be carried out in stages, gradually excluding tested options.

Not enough processor power for new software

Excessive load on the central processor is one of the most common causes of freezing and slowing down of computer performance.

Sometimes users themselves create additional processor load. For example, they install the 64-bit version Windows 10 on a computer with four gigabytes of RAM, which can hardly cope with the amount of resources consumed for this edition of the distribution, despite the 64-bit processor. In addition, there is no guarantee that when all the processor cores are activated, one of them will not have a defect in silicon crystals, which will negatively affect the speed of the product. In this case, the transition to a 32-bit version of the operating system, which consumes much less resources, will help reduce the load. She is quite satisfied with the standard amount of RAM of 4 gigabytes at a processor clock speed of 2.5 gigahertz.

The reason for the computer freezing or slowing down may be a low-power processor that does not meet the system requirements that modern programs present. When several fairly resource-intensive products are turned on at the same time, it does not have time to cope with the flow of commands and begins to malfunction and freeze, which leads to constant slowdown in work.

You can check the load on the processor and get rid of the work of applications that are currently unnecessary in a simple way:

  1. Start Task Manager by pressing the key combination Ctrl + Alt + Del (you can also press the key combination Ctrl + Shift + Del). Task Manager item in the menu

    Click on the 'Task Manager' menu item

  2. Go to the 'Performance' tab and view the percentage of CPU utilization. Performance Tab in the Task Manager Window

    View CPU percentage

  3. Click on the 'Open Resource Monitor' icon at the bottom of the panel. CPU Tab in Resource Monitor

    In the Resource Monitor panel, view the percentage and graphics processor utilization

  4. View CPU utilization in percentage and graphical views.
  5. Select the applications that you do not currently need in working order and right-click on them. Click on the 'End Process' item. End Process item in the Resource Monitor window

    Select unnecessary processes and terminate them

It is not uncommon for additional processor load to occur due to continued activity of a closed application. For example, a user communicated with someone using Skype. At the end of the conversation, I closed the program, but the application still remained active and continued to load the processor with unnecessary commands, taking some of the resources. This is where the 'Resource Monitor' comes in, where you can end the process manually.

It is desirable to have a processor load in the range of sixty to seventy percent. If it exceeds this indicator, then the computer slows down, as the processor starts to skip and reset commands.

With too high load and a clear inability of the processor to cope with the volume of commands from running programs, there are only two ways to solve the problem:

  • get a new CPU with a higher clock speed;
  • do not run a large number of resource-intensive programs at the same time or keep them to a minimum.

Before you rush to buy a new processor, you should definitely try to find out the reason why the performance has decreased. This will allow you to make the right decision and not waste your money. The reasons for inhibition can be as follows:

  • obsolescence of computer components. With the rapid development of software, computer elements (RAM, video card, motherboard) are not able to support the system requirements of the software for many years. New applications are designed for modern components with increased resource indicators, so it is increasingly difficult for outdated computer models to provide the required speed and performance;
  • overheating of the processor. This is a very common reason for slowing down your computer or laptop. When the temperature rises above the limit value, the processor will automatically reset the frequency to cool down a little, or will skip clock cycles. During this process, braking occurs, which affects speed and performance; Burning processor

    Overheating of the processor is one of the reasons for freezing and braking a computer or laptop

  • cluttering the system. Any OS, even a freshly tested and cleaned one, immediately starts to accumulate new garbage. If you do not periodically clean the system, then erroneous entries in the registry, residual files from uninstalled programs, temporary files, Internet files, etc. will gradually accumulate. Therefore, the system begins to function slowly due to an increase in the search time for the necessary files on the hard drive;
  • degradation of the processor. Due to constant operation at high temperature conditions, the silicon chip of the processor begins to degrade. There is a decrease in the speed mode of command processing and braking in operation. On laptops, this is easier to determine than on stationary computers, since in this case there is a strong heating of the case in the area of ​​\ u200b \ u200bthe processor and hard drive;
  • the impact of virus programs. Malicious programs can greatly slow down the work of the central processor, since they can block the execution of system commands, take up a large amount of RAM, preventing other programs from using it.

After carrying out the initial steps to identify the causes of inhibition in work, you can proceed to a more thorough check of the computer elements and system software.

Video: how to disable unnecessary processes through the 'Task Manager' in Windows 10

Hard drive problems

Braking and freezing of a computer or laptop can occur due to problems with the hard drive, which can be of both mechanical and software nature. The main reasons for slow computer performance:

  • the free space on the hard drive is almost exhausted. This is more typical for older computers with a small hard drive. It should be borne in mind that if there is not enough RAM, the system creates a paging file on the hard drive, which for Windows 10 can reach one and a half gigabytes. When the disk is full, the paging file is created, but with a much smaller size, which affects the speed of searching and processing information. To fix this problem, you need to find and remove all unnecessary programs with the extensions .txt, .hlp, .gid that are not used;
  • defragmentation of the hard drive was carried out a long time ago. As a result, clusters of one file or application can be randomly scattered across the disk, which increases the time it takes to find and process them when reading. This problem can be eliminated with utilities designed for working with hard drives, such as Auslogics DiskDefrag, Wise Care 365, Glary Utilites, CCleaner. They help get rid of garbage, traces of surfing the Internet, streamline the file structure and help clean up startup; Wise Care 365 program window

    Remember to regularly defragment files on your hard drive

  • accumulation of a large number of 'junk' files that interfere with normal operation and slow down the computer's performance;
  • mechanical damage to the disc. This can happen:
    • with frequent power outages, when the computer turns off unscheduled;
    • when turned off and instantly turned on, when the reading head has not yet had time to park;
    • when the hard drive is worn out.

    The only thing that can be done in this situation is to check the disk for bad sectors using the Victoria program, which will try to restore them.

    Victoria program window

    Using the Victoria program, you can check for broken clusters and try to restore them

Video: what to do if the hard disk is 100% loaded

Out of RAM

One of the reasons the computer slows down is the lack of RAM.

Modern software requires more and more resource use, so the amount that was enough to run old programs is no longer enough. The update is proceeding at a rapid pace: the computer, which until recently successfully coped with its tasks, today starts to slow down.

To check the amount of memory used, you can do the following:

  1. Launch the 'Task Manager'.
  2. Go to the 'Performance' tab.
  3. View the amount of used RAM. Memory item in the Performance tab in the Task Manager window

    Determine the amount of used memory

  4. Click on the 'Open Resource Monitor' icon.
  5. Go to the 'Memory' tab.
  6. View the amount of used RAM in percentage and graphical form. Memory Tab in Resource Monitor Window

    Determine memory resources graphically and as a percentage

If the computer slows down and freezes due to lack of memory, then you can try to fix the problem in several ways:

  • run as few resource-intensive programs as possible at the same time;
  • disable unnecessary applications that are active at the moment in the Resource Monitor;
  • use a less power-hungry browser such as Opera;
  • use the Wise Memory Optimizer utility from Wise Care 365 or similar to clean your RAM regularly. Wise Memory Optimizer Utility Interface

    Click on the 'Optimize' button to start the utility

  • buy memory chips with a large volume.

Video: How to Optimize RAM with Wise Memory Optimizer

Too many startup programs

In the event that a laptop or computer is slow at startup, this indicates that too many applications have been added to autorun. They become active already at the moment of system startup and additionally take up resources, which leads to a slowdown in work.

During subsequent work, auto-loaded programs continue to be active and slow down all work. You need to check 'Startup' after every application installation. It is possible that new programs will be added to autorun.

Startup can be checked using Task Manager or a third-party program:

  1. Using the 'Task Manager':
    • enter the 'Task Manager' by pressing the key combination on the keyboard Ctrl + Shift + Esc;
    • go to the 'Startup' tab;
    • select unnecessary applications;
    • click on the 'Disable' button. Disable button in Startup tab

      Select and disable unnecessary applications in the 'Startup' tab

    • restart your computer.
  2. With Glary Utilites:
    • download and run Glary Utilites program;
    • go to the 'Modules' tab;
    • select the 'Optimization' icon in the left part of the panel;
    • click on the 'Startup Manager' icon; The 'Launch Manager' item in the 'Optimization' tab of the Glary Utilites program

      In the panel, click on the 'Startup Manager' icon

    • go to the 'Autostart' tab; Startup Tab in Startup Manager Panel

      In the panel, select unnecessary applications and uninstall them

    • right-click on the selected applications and select the 'Delete' line from the drop-down menu.

Video: how to remove a program from 'Startup' in Windows 10

Computer virus infection

If a laptop or computer that worked at a good speed before begins to slow down, then a possible cause of this may be the penetration of a malicious virus program into the system. Viruses are constantly being modified, and not all of them have time to get into the anti-virus program's database in time before the user catches them from the Internet.

It is recommended to use tested antiviruses with constant updates, such as 60 Total Security, Dr.Web, Kaspersky Internet Security. The rest, unfortunately, despite the advertisements, often miss malicious programs, especially those disguised as advertisements.

Many viruses infiltrate browsers. This becomes noticeable when working on the Internet. There are viruses designed to destroy documents. So their range of action is wide enough and requires constant vigilance. To protect your computer from virus attacks, you must constantly keep the antivirus program turned on and periodically carry out a full scan.

The most typical variants of virus infection are:

  • many options on the page when downloading files. As a rule, in this case it is possible to pick up a Trojan, that is, a program that transfers all information about a computer to the owner of a malicious program;
  • many enthusiastic comments on the program download page;
  • phishing pages, i.e. fake pages that are very difficult to distinguish from genuine ones. Especially those where your phone number is requested;
  • search pages of a certain focus.

The best thing to do to avoid catching a virus is to bypass unverified sites. Otherwise, you can catch such a problem with slowing down the computer, which will help nothing but a complete reinstallation of the system.

Overheating of components

Another common cause of slow computer performance is processor overheating. It is most painful for laptops, since its components are almost impossible to replace. The processor is very often simply soldered onto the motherboard and requires specialized hardware to replace it.

Overheating on a laptop is easy to determine: in the area where the processor and hard drive are located, the case will constantly heat up. The temperature regime must be monitored so that any component does not suddenly fail due to overheating.

Various third-party programs can be used to check the temperature of the processor and hard drive:

  • AIDA64:
    • download and run the AIDA64 program;
    • click on the 'Computer' icon; Computer button in the AIDA64 program panel

      In the AIDA64 program panel, click on the 'Computer' icon

    • click on the 'Sensors' icon; Sensors button in the Computer panel

      In the 'Computer' panel, click on the 'Sensors' icon

    • in the 'Sensors' panel, view the temperature of the processor and hard drive. Item 'Temperature' in the panel 'Sensors'

      View the temperature of the processor and hard drive under 'Temperature'

  • HWMonitor:
    • download and run the HWMonitor program;
    • view the temperature of the processor and hard drive. 'Temperature' item in the HWMonitor program panel

      You can also determine the temperature of the processor and hard drive using the HWMonitor program

If you exceed the set temperature limit, you can try the following:

  • disassemble and clean a laptop or computer system unit from dust;
  • install additional cooling fans;
  • remove as much visual effects and firewall communication with the network as possible;
  • buy a laptop cooling pad.

Video: how to find out the CPU temperature in Windows 10

Insufficient paging file

The problem with insufficient paging file size stems from a lack of RAM.

The less RAM, the larger the paging file is created. This virtual memory is activated when there is not enough standard memory.

The paging file starts to slow down the computer if several resource-intensive programs or some powerful game are open. This usually happens on computers with no more than 1 gigabyte of RAM installed. In this case, the paging file can be increased.

To change the swap file to Windows 10 do the following:

  1. Right click on the 'This PC' icon on your desktop.
  2. Select the 'Properties' line. Item 'Properties' in the context menu 'This computer'

    In the drop-down menu select the line 'Properties'

  3. Click on the 'Advanced System Settings' icon in the 'System' panel that opens. Advanced Options button in the System panel

    In the panel, click on the 'Advanced system settings' icon

  4. Go to the 'Advanced' tab and in the 'Performance' section click on the 'Options' button. Options button under Performance

    In the 'Performance' section, click on the 'Options' button

  5. Go to the 'Advanced' tab and in the 'Virtual memory' section click on the 'Change' button. Advanced tab in the Performance Options panel

    In the panel, click on the 'Modify' button

  6. Specify the new paging file size and click on the 'OK' button. Item 'Specify size' in the panel 'Virtual memory'

    Specify the size of the new paging file

Video: how to resize, delete, or move the paging file to Windows 10

Influence of visual effects

If the computer or laptop is outdated, a large number of visual effects can greatly affect braking. In such cases, it is better to minimize their number to increase the amount of free memory.

To do this, you can apply two options:

  1. Remove the desktop background:
    • right-click on the desktop;
    • select the line 'Personalization'; Item 'Personalization' in desktop properties

      In the drop-down menu, click on the line 'Personalization'

    • click on the 'Background' icon on the left;
    • select the line 'Solid color'; Item 'Background' in parameters Windows

      In the panel, select the line 'Solid Color'

    • choose any color for the background.
  2. Minimize visual effects:
    • click on the 'Advanced system settings' icon in the computer properties;
    • go to the 'Advanced' tab;
    • click on the 'Options' button in the 'Performance' section;
    • turn on the “Provide best performance” switch in the “Visual effects” tab or manually disable effects from the list; Visual Effects Tab in Performance Options Window

      Disable unnecessary visual effects using a switch or manually

    • click on the 'OK' button.

Video: how to disable unnecessary visual effects

High dustiness

Over time, the fan of the processor or power supply of a personal computer becomes covered with a layer of dust. The elements of the motherboard are also affected. This heats up the device and slows down the computer, as dust disturbs air circulation.

Periodically, you need to clean the computer elements and fans from dust. This can be done with an old toothbrush and vacuum cleaner.

Firewall prohibitions

Even if there is no Internet connection, the computer still accesses network connections. These calls are long lasting and consume a lot of resources. It is necessary to limit their number as much as possible to accelerate performance. To do this, do the following:

  1. Open the 'Control Panel' by double clicking on the appropriate icon on the desktop.
  2. Click on the 'Firewall Windows' icon. Section 'Firewall Windows' in 'Control Panel'

    Click on the 'Firewall Windows' icon

  3. Click on the 'Allow Interaction …' button. 'Allow communication ...' button in the 'Firewall Windows' section

    Click on the 'Allow Interaction …' button

  4. Click on the 'Change settings' button and uncheck unnecessary applications. Change settings button in Allowed programs window

    Disable unnecessary applications by unchecking the checkboxes

  5. Save your changes.

You need to disable the maximum number of programs that have access to the network to speed up the computer.

Too many junk files

The computer can slow down due to accumulated junk files, which also use RAM and cache resources. The more junk on the hard drive, the slower your laptop or computer works. The largest volume of files of this type is made up of temporary Internet files, information in the browser cache and incorrect entries in the registry.

You can fix this problem using third-party programs, for example, Glary Utilities:

  1. Download and run Glary Utilities program.
  2. Go to the '1-Click' tab and click on the green 'Find Problems' button. Find problems key in the 1-Click tab

    Click on the 'Find problems' button

  3. Check the box next to 'Autoremedy'. A check mark opposite the 'AutoRemove' item in Glary Utilities

    Check the box next to the line 'Auto-elimination'

  4. Wait until the end of the computer scan process. Completion of the scan by Glary Utilities

    Wait until all problems are solved

  5. Go to the 'Modules' tab.
  6. Click on the 'Security' icon in the left panel.
  7. Click on the 'Erase Traces' button. Erase Tracks button in the Security tab in Glary Utilities

    Click on the 'Erase Traces' icon

  8. Click on the 'Erase traces' button and confirm the erasure. Erase Tracks button in the Erase Tracks panel

    Click on the 'Erase traces' button and confirm the cleaning

And you can also use the Wise Care 365 and CCleaner programs for these purposes.

Video: 12 reasons why a computer or laptop slows down

Reasons why certain programs slow down, and how to fix them

Sometimes the reason for the computer slowdown can be the installation of a game or application.

Slow down games

Games often slow down on laptops. These devices are slower and slower than computers. Also, laptops are not designed for gaming and are more prone to overheating.

A common reason for slowing down games is a video card for which the wrong driver is installed.

To fix the problem, you can do the following:

  1. Remove dust from your computer. This will help reduce overheating.
  2. Turn off all programs before starting the game.
  3. Install the Game Optimizer utility. Such as the Razer Cortex, which will automatically configure the game mode. Razer Cortex Utility Panel

    Automatically configure game mode with Razer Cortex

  4. Install an earlier version of the game application.

Sometimes game applications can slow down the computer due to the activity of the uTorrent client, which is distributing files and heavily loads the hard drive. To fix the problem, you just need to close the program.

Computer slows down due to browser

The browser can cause slowdown if there is a lack of RAM.

You can fix this problem by doing the following:

  • install the latest browser version;
  • close all unnecessary pages;
  • check for viruses.

Driver problems

The reason for the slowdown of the computer may be a conflict between the device and the driver.

To check, do the following:

  1. Go to the properties of your computer and in the 'System' panel click on the 'Device Manager' icon. Device Manager button in the System pane

    Click on the 'Device Manager' icon

  2. Check for yellow triangles with exclamation marks inside. Their presence indicates that the device is conflicting with the driver and an update or reinstallation is required. List of devices in the Device Manager pane

    Check for driver conflicts

  3. Search for and install drivers. It is best to do this automatically using the DriverPack Solution program. DriverPack Solution program panel

    Install the drivers found with DriverPack Solution

Problems must be resolved. If there are conflicts, then they need to be resolved manually.

Problems causing slowdown of computers are similar for laptops and are similar for all devices running in the environment Windows 10. The ways to eliminate the causes of the freeze may differ slightly, but the algorithm is always similar. When braking, users can speed up their computers using the methods outlined in this article. It is impossible to consider all the reasons causing the slowdown in one article, since there are a great many of them. But it is the methods considered in the overwhelming majority of cases that allow you to solve problems and tune your computer for maximum performance.

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