Doesn't load Windows 10: software and hardware reasons and how to fix them

The performance and capabilities of a system are dictated by its complexity. The more complex the structure, the more constituent mechanisms in it, and this entails the appearance of various problems. Each of the gears is potentially vulnerable, and if one fails, the system will not function normally, and failures will begin. Windows 10 is a prime example of how the entire OS reacts to any minor problem.


  • For what reasons may not load Windows 10 (black or blue screen and various errors)
    • Software reasons
      • Installing another operating system
      • Video: how to change the boot order of operating systems in Windows 10
      • Experimenting with disk partitions
      • Unqualified editing through the system registry
      • Using various programs to speed up and decorate the system
      • Video: How to manually disable unneeded services in Windows 10
      • Incorrectly inserted updates Windows or shutting down the PC during the installation of updates
      • Viruses and antiviruses
      • 'Damaged' applications at startup
      • Video: how to enter 'Safe Mode' in Windows 10
    • Hardware reasons
      • Changing the order of polling bootable media in B IOS or connecting the hard disk to a wrong port on the motherboard (INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE error)
      • Video: How to Set Boot Sequence in B IOS
      • Faulty RAM
      • Failure of elements of the video subsystem
      • Other hardware problems
  • Some ways to deal with software reasons for not starting Windows 10
    • System recovery using TVS
      • Video: how to create, delete a restore point and rollback Windows 10
    • System restore using sfc / scannow command
      • Video: how to restore system files using 'Command Prompt' in Windows 10
    • Recovery using a system image
      • Video: how to create an image Windows 10 and restore the system using it
  • Ways to deal with hardware reasons for not starting Windows 10
    • Fixing a hard drive problem
    • Cleaning your computer from dust
      • Video: how to properly clean the system unit from dust

For what reasons may not load Windows 10 (black or blue screen and various errors)

The reasons why Windows 10 might fail to start or 'catch' a critical (semi-critical) error are varied. This can provoke anything:

  • unsuccessfully installed update;
  • viruses;
  • hardware errors, including power surges;
  • poor quality software;
  • all sorts of failures during operation or shutdown and much more.

If you want your computer or laptop to work correctly for as long as possible, you need to blow off dust particles from it. And both literally and figuratively. This is especially true when using old system units with poor ventilation.

Software reasons

Software failure reasons Windows are the leaders in terms of the number of possible options. Errors can appear in every area of ​​the system. Even a minor problem can lead to serious damage.

The most difficult thing is to get rid of the consequences of a computer virus infection. Never follow links from unfamiliar sources. This is especially true for emails.

Viruses can re-encrypt all user files on the media, and some have the ability to even cause hardware damage to the device. For example, infected files of the system can instruct the hard drive to run at a speed higher than that provided. This will damage the hard disk or magnetic head.

Installing another operating system

Each operating system from Windows has one or another advantage over others. Therefore, it is not surprising that some users do not neglect the possibility of using several operating systems at once on one computer. However, installing a second system can damage the boot files of the first one, which will make it unable to start.

Fortunately, there is a method that allows you to recreate the boot files of the old OS, provided that itself Windows was not damaged during installation, was not overwritten or replaced. Using the 'Command Line' and the utility in it, you can return the necessary files to the loader service:

  1. Open Command Prompt. To do this, hold down the Win + X key combination and select the 'Command Prompt (administrator)' item. The 'Command line (administrator)' item in the Win + X menu

    Through the menu Windows open the 'Command line (administrator)' item

  2. Enter the bcdedit command and press Enter. Check out the list of operating systems for your computer. 'Boot Manager Windows' in 'Command Line'

    Enter the bcdedit command to display a list of installed operating systems

  3. Enter the bootrec / rebuildbcd command. It will add to the 'Download Manager' all operating systems that were not originally in it. After the command completes, the corresponding item with the choice will be added during computer boot. Select operating system window

    The next time you boot your computer, Boot Manager will give you a choice between the installed operating systems

  4. Enter the bcdedit / timeout command. Replace the asterisks with the number of seconds the Boot Manager gives you to choose from Windows.

Video: how to change the boot order of operating systems in Windows 10

Experimenting with disk partitions

Various kinds of manipulations with hard disk partitions can also result in boot problems. This is especially true of the section on which the operating system is installed.

Disk Management window

It is not worthwhile to perform actions related to volume compression with the disk on which the operating system is installed, as this can lead to failures

Anything you do to shrink a volume to save space or increase other partitions can cause the OS to crash. Decreasing the size is discouraged, if only because the system may need much more space than it currently occupies.

Windows uses the so-called paging file – a tool that allows you to increase the amount of RAM at the expense of some amount of hard disk. Also, some system updates take up a lot of space. Shrinking a volume can overflow the allowed amount of information, and this will lead to problems when requests for files are made. Consequence – problems during system startup.

If you rename the volume (replace the letter), all paths to the OS files will be simply lost. The bootloader files will literally go to the void. The situation with renaming can be corrected only if there is a second operating system (the instructions above are suitable for this). But if only one Windows is installed on the computer and it is not possible to install the second, only flash drives with an already installed boot system can help with great difficulty.

Unqualified editing through the system registry

Some instructions on the Internet offer to solve some of the problems by editing the registry. In their justification, it is worth saying that such a solution can really help in certain cases.

'Registry Editor' at Windows 10

An ordinary user is not recommended to make edits in the system registry, since one incorrect change or removal of parameters can lead to the failure of the entire OS

But the trouble is that the registry Windows is a delicate area of ​​the system: one incorrect deletion or editing of a parameter can lead to dire consequences. The registry paths are virtually identical in their names. Getting to the file you are looking for and fixing it correctly, adding or removing the required element is almost a surgical job.

Imagine a situation: all instructions are copied from each other, and one of the authors of the articles accidentally specified an incorrect parameter or an incorrect path to the desired file. The result will be a completely paralyzed operating system. Therefore, it is not recommended to make edits to the system registry. The paths in it may differ depending on the version and bitness of the OS.

Using various programs to speed up and decorate the system

There is a whole market cluster of programs that are created to improve performance Windows in many areas. They are also responsible for the visual beauty and design of the system. It is worth admitting that they do their job in most cases. However, if in the case of decorating the system, the standard textures are simply replaced with new ones, then to speed up the work, such programs turn off 'unnecessary' services. This can be fraught with different kinds of consequences, depending on which services have been disabled.

If the system needs optimization, then it must be carried out independently in order to know what and for what exactly was done. In addition, knowing that you have disabled, you can easily enable the service back.

  1. Open 'System Configuration'. To do this, enter 'msconfig' in the search Windows. The search will return the file of the same name or the 'System Configuration' control. Click on any of the results. 'System Configuration' in the Start Menu

    Search Windows open 'System Configuration'

  2. Go to the 'Services' tab. Uncheck the boxes that are unnecessary for work Windows. Save the changes with the 'OK' button. Reboot the system for your edits to take effect. Services Tab in System Configuration Window

    Examine the list of services in the System Configuration window and disable unnecessary

As a result, disabled services will stop starting and working. This will save CPU and RAM resources and make your computer run faster.

List of services that can be disabled without harm to performance Windows:

  • 'Fax';
  • NVIDIA Stereoscopic 3D Driver Service (for NVidia video cards, if you are not using 3D stereo images);
  • 'Net.Tcp Port Sharing Service';
  • 'Working folders';
  • 'AllJoyn Router Service';
  • 'Application Identity';
  • BitLocker Drive Encryption Service;
  • 'Support Bluetooth' (if you are not using Bluetooth);
  • 'Client license service' (ClipSVC, after disconnection, store applications may not work correctly Windows 10);
  • “Computer browser”;
  • Dmwappushservice;
  • “Geographic location service”;
  • 'Data Exchange Service (Hyper-V)';
  • 'Guest Shutdown Service (Hyper-V)';
  • Heartbeat Service (Hyper-V);
  • 'Hyper-V Virtual Machine Session Service';
  • 'Hyper-V Time Synchronization Service';
  • 'Data Exchange Service (Hyper-V)';
  • 'Hyper-V Remote Desktop Virtualization Service';
  • “Service for monitoring sensors”;
  • 'Sensor data service';
  • 'Service of sensors';
  • 'Connected user functionality and telemetry' (This is one of the items to disable tracking Windows 10);
  • 'Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)'. Provided that you do not use Internet sharing functions, for example, to distribute Wi-Fi from a laptop;
  • 'Xbox Live Networking Service';
  • Superfetch (assuming you are using an SSD);
  • 'Print Manager' (if you are not using print functions, including built-in Windows 10 printing to PDF);
  • 'Biometric Service Windows';
  • 'Remote registry';
  • 'Secondary login' (assuming you are not using it).

Video: How to manually disable unneeded services in Windows 10

Incorrectly inserted updates Windows or shutting down the PC during the installation of updates

Updates Windows can be measured in gigabytes. The reason for this is the ambiguous attitude of users towards system updates. The corporation Microsoft actually forces users to update the top ten, in return guaranteeing the system is operational. However, updates do not always lead to improved performance Windows. Sometimes trying to make the OS better turns out to be big problems for the system. There are four main reasons:

  • the users themselves, who ignore the message 'Do not turn off the computer …' and turn off their device during the update process;
  • small-scale equipment fails: old and rare processors on which the developers Microsoft simply cannot simulate the update behavior;
  • errors while downloading updates;
  • force majeure: power surges, magnetic storms and other phenomena that can affect the operation of the computer.

Each of the above reasons can lead to a critical system error, since updates replace important components. If the file is replaced incorrectly, an error has appeared in it, then an attempt to access it will lead to the OS freezing.

Viruses and antiviruses

Despite all the protection measures, constant warnings to users about the safety rules on the Internet, viruses are still a scourge in the work of all operating systems.

In most cases, users let malware onto their devices themselves and then get hurt. Viruses, worms, Trojans, ransomware – this is not the whole list of types of software that threatens your computer.

But few people know that antiviruses can also damage the system. It's all about the principle of their work. Protective programs operate according to a certain algorithm: they search for infected files and, if found, try to separate the file code from the virus code. This does not always work, and corrupted files are often isolated if the attempt to cure them fails. There are also options for deleting or transferring anti-virus programs to servers for cleaning from malicious code. But if viruses damage important system files, and the antivirus has isolated them, then when you try to restart the computer, there is a high probability of receiving one of the critical errors, and Windows will not boot.

'Damaged' applications at startup

Another cause of problems with loading Windows is poor quality or containing errors in autorun programs. But unlike damaged system files, startup programs almost always allow the system to start, albeit with some time delays. In cases where the errors are more serious and the system cannot boot, you should use the 'Safe Mode' (BR). It doesn't use autorun programs, so you can boot the operating system and uninstall bad software without any problems.

In the case when the OS fails to load, use the 'Safe Mode' using the installation flash drive:

  1. Use B IOS to boot the system from the USB flash drive and start the installation. In this case, on the screen with the 'Install' button, click on 'System Restore'. System Restore button in the Setup Windows window

    The System Restore button gives you access to special boot options Windows

  2. Follow the path 'Diagnostics' – 'Additional options' – 'Command line'.
  3. At the Command Prompt, enter the command bcdedit / set {default} safeboot network and press Enter. Restart your computer, 'Safe Mode' will turn on automatically.

After entering the BR, remove all questionable applications. The next restart of the computer will take place as usual.

Video: how to enter 'Safe Mode' in Windows 10

Hardware reasons

Hardware reasons for not starting Windows are much less common. As a rule, if something breaks inside the computer, it will not even work to start it, let alone boot the OS. However, minor problems with various kinds of manipulation of equipment, replacement and addition of some devices are still possible.

Changing the order of polling bootable media in B IOS or connecting the hard disk to a wrong port on the motherboard (INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE error)

During a superficial home repair, cleaning the computer from dust, or adding / replacing an operating board or hard drive, a critical INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE error may occur. It can also appear if the order of the media for loading the operating system has been changed in menu B IOS.

There are several methods of dealing with the above error:

  1. Remove all hard drives and flash drives from the computer, except for the one on which the operating system is installed. If the problem disappears, you can reconnect the media you need.
  2. Restore OS Boot Media Order to B IOS.
  3. Use System Restore. Namely follow the path 'Diagnostics' – 'Advanced options' – 'Startup Repair'. Startup Repair item in the Advanced Options window

    Startup Repair item fixes most errors that occur when trying to start Windows

The problem should go away after the bug finder finishes his work.

Video: How to Set Boot Sequence in B IOS

Faulty RAM

With the advancement of technology, every single piece of computer hardware is getting smaller, lighter and more efficient. As a result, the parts lose their rigidity, become more fragile and vulnerable to mechanical damage. Even dust can negatively affect the performance of individual chips.

RAM bars

If the problem concerns the ramps, then the only way to solve the problem is to buy a new device

RAM is no exception. DDR strips every now and then fall into disrepair, errors appear that do not allow loading Windows and working in the correct mode. Often, memory-related failures are accompanied by a special signal from the motherboard speaker.

Unfortunately, memory stick errors are almost always beyond repair. The only way to fix the problem is to change the device.

Failure of elements of the video subsystem

It is very easy to diagnose problems with any element of the video system of a computer or laptop. You hear that the computer turns on, and even loads the operating system with characteristic welcome sounds, but the screen remains deathly black. In this case, it is immediately clear that the problem is in the video sequence of the computer. But the trouble is that the video output system consists of a set of devices:

  • video card;
  • bridge;
  • motherboard;
  • screen.

Unfortunately, the user can only check the contact of the video card with the motherboard: try a different connector or connect another monitor to the video adapter. If these simple manipulations did not help you, you need to contact the service center for a deeper diagnosis of the problem.

Other hardware problems

If you think about it, any hardware failure inside your computer will lead to errors. Even violations in the form of a broken keyboard can prevent the operating system from loading. Other problems are possible, and each of them is characterized in its own way:

  • problems with the power supply will be accompanied by an abrupt shutdown of the computer;
  • complete drying of thermoplastics and insufficient cooling of the system unit elements will be accompanied by sudden reboots Windows.

Some ways to deal with software reasons for not starting Windows 10

The best way to reanimate Windows are system restore points (TVS). This tool allows you to rollback the OS to a specific point in time when the error did not exist yet. By doing this, you can both prevent the problem from occurring and restore the performance of your system to its original position. In this case, all your programs and settings will be saved.

System recovery using TVS

To use system restore points, you need to enable them and set some parameters:

  1. Call the context menu of the 'This computer' icon and select 'Properties'. 'Properties' in the context menu 'This PC'

    Call the context menu of the 'This computer' icon

  2. Click on the 'System Protection' button. System Protection button in the System window

    The 'System Protection' button opens the environment for configuring restore points

  3. Select the disc labeled '(System)' and click the 'Configure' button. Move the checkbox next to 'Enable system protection' and move the slider next to the 'Maximum use' setting to a value that suits you. This parameter will set the amount of information used for restore points. It is recommended to select 20-40% and at least 5 GB (depending on the size of your system disk). Configuring a system restore point

    Turn on system protection and configure the allowed amount of fuel assembly

  4. Apply the changes with the 'OK' buttons.

  5. The 'Create' button will save the current system configuration in the FA. New button in the System Protection tab

    The 'Create' button will save the current system configuration in TVS

As a result, we have a fixed operational OS that can be subsequently restored. It is recommended that you create restore points every two to three weeks.

To use TVS:

  1. Boot using the installation stick as shown above. Follow the path 'Diagnostics' – 'Additional options' – 'System restore'. System Restore button in Advanced Options

    System Restore button allows you to restore your OS using a restore point

  2. Wait until the recovery wizard finishes.

Video: how to create, delete a restore point and rollback Windows 10

System restore using sfc / scannow command

Taking into account that system restore points are not always convenient in terms of creation, and they can also be 'eaten' by viruses or disk errors, it is possible to restore the system programmatically – using the sfc.exe utility. This method works both in the system recovery mode using a bootable USB flash drive, and using the 'Safe Mode'. To start the program for execution, start the 'Command Line', enter the sfc / scannow command and start it for execution by pressing Enter (suitable for BR).

Performing a troubleshooting task for the 'Command Prompt' in recovery mode looks different due to the fact that one computer may have more than one operating system installed.

  1. Start the 'Command line' following the path: 'Diagnostics' – 'Additional parameters' – 'Command line'. 'Command Prompt' in the system recovery menu

    Select the 'Command Prompt' item

  2. Enter the commands:
    • sfc / scannow / offwindir = C: \ – for scanning basic files;
    • sfc / scannow / offbootdir = C: \ / offwindir = C: \ – to scan the main files and bootloader Windows.

It is necessary to keep an eye on the drive letter if the OS is not installed in the standard directory of the C drive. After the utility completes, restart the computer.

Video: how to restore system files using 'Command Prompt' in Windows 10

Recovery using a system image

Another opportunity to restore functionality Windows is recovery using an image file. If you have a tens distribution kit stored on your computer, you can use it to return the OS to its original state.

  1. Return to the System Restore menu and select Advanced Options – System Image Restore. 'System Image Restore' in 'Advanced Options'

    Select the item 'System Image Recovery'

  2. Using the wizard's prompts, select the path to the image file and start the recovery process. Be sure to wait until the end of the program, no matter how long it takes. Computer Image Recovery window

    Select the image file and restore the OS

Restart your computer and enjoy a working system in which all damaged and incompetent files have been replaced.

It is recommended to store the OS image both in the form of a bootable USB flash drive and on a computer. Try to download updated versions Windows at least once every two months.

Video: how to create an image Windows 10 and restore the system using it

Ways to deal with hardware reasons for not starting Windows 10

Only a specialist of the service center can provide qualified assistance with a hardware breakdown of the system. If you do not have the skills to handle electronic equipment, it is strongly not recommended to untwist, remove, solder anything.

Fixing a hard drive problem

It should be noted that most of the hardware reasons for not starting are related to the hard drive. Since most of the information is saved on it, the hard drive is often attacked by errors: files and sectors with data are damaged. Accordingly, access to these places on the hard disk leads to system freezing, and the OS simply does not boot. Fortunately, Windows has a tool that can help with simple situations.

  1. Through System Restore, open the 'Command Prompt' as shown in the 'System Restore with the sfc.exe utility'.
  2. Enter the chkdsk C: / F / R command. Performing this task will find and fix disk errors. It is recommended that you scan all partitions, replacing C: with the appropriate letters. Chkdsk command C: / F / R in 'Command Prompt'

    CHKDSK will help you find and fix hard disk errors

Cleaning your computer from dust

Overheating, poor contacts of bus connections and devices can be triggered by an abundance of dust in the system unit.

  1. Check the connections of the devices to the motherboard without using excessive force.
  2. Clean and blow out any dust you can reach using a soft brush or cotton swab.
  3. Check the condition of the wires and tires, whether they have defects or swellings. There should be no exposed parts and plugs without connection to the power supply.

If cleaning from dust and checking the connections did not work, system recovery did not help, you need to contact the service center.

Video: how to properly clean the system unit from dust

Windows may not start for various reasons. Both software and hardware errors are possible, but neither one nor the other in most cases is not critical. This means that they can be corrected without the help of specialists, guided only by simple instructions.

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